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MAY 6, 2024

Technical details: in-depth discussion of the working principle, type, performance index of AGV lithium battery.

Working Principle

            AGV lithium batteries mainly rely on the movement of lithium ions between the positive and negative materials to store and release energy. During charging, lithium ions move from the positive electrode to the negative electrode to store energy; during discharging, they move in the opposite direction to release energy. This process involves the flow of electric current, in which the current from the charger generates a thrust on the lithium ions to move through the electrolyte to the negative electrode, where they are stored in the form of electrochemical energy.The AGV trolley is driven by the charging power supply, utilizing the guidance pathways, such as optics or electromagnetism, and is driven by the wheels underneath, which allows it to carry out operations such as moving forward, moving backward, making left and right turns, and branching off.

AGV lithium battery type

              Distinguish according to materials: lithium batteries can be divided into various types according to the different cathode materials, including lithium iron phosphate (LFP), lithium nickelate (LNO), lithium manganate (LMO), lithium cobalt (LCO), and lithium nickel-cobalt manganese (NCM), lithium nickel-cobalt-aluminum ternary (NCA), and so on.The main types of lithium batteries used in the mainstream of the current market are lithium iron phosphate, lithium manganate, lithium ternary polymer batteries, lithium cobalt acid batteries. These different types have their own advantages and disadvantages, for example, lithium ternary batteries relative to lithium iron phosphate, the advantages of a single high operating voltage, the key light, good ultra-low temperature.

The main lithium battery types in the market

              There are two main types of AGV lithium batteries: lithium ternary batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries.

  • Li-ion ternary battery: It has higher energy density and lower self-discharge rate, but the cycle life is relatively shorter, and it may be slightly inferior in terms of safety. The single rated voltage of Li-ion ternary battery is about 3.6-3.7V, and the working voltage range is 3.0V to 4.2V.
  • Lithium iron phosphate batteries: known for its high safety, long cycle life and high temperature resistance, but with relatively low energy density, resulting in a heavier overall weight. The single rated voltage of Li-FePO4 battery is about 3.2V, and the operating voltage range is from 2.5V to 3.65V.

Performance indicators

              The performance indicators of AGV lithium batteries include but are not limited to drive type, dead weight (excluding battery), rated load carrying capacity, operating speed, turning radius, positioning accuracy, and vehicle body size. These parameters directly affect the operational efficiency and applicable scenarios of AGVs. For example, the energy density, cycle life and safety performance of the battery are all important factors to consider when selecting AGV lithium batteries.

  • Voltage: The rated and maximum voltage of the battery should meet the requirements of the AGV motor. The rated voltage of the battery should not be lower than the rated voltage of the motor, and the full voltage should not exceed the maximum voltage of the equipment.
  • Capacity: The battery capacity determines the range of the AGV. The higher the capacity, the longer the AGV can run without charging.
  • Discharge power: Discharge power affects the starting and climbing ability of the AGV. High discharge power means that the AGV can start quickly and overcome greater resistance.
  • Cycle life: The cycle life of a battery, i.e. how many charge/discharge cycles a battery can withstand without exceeding a certain performance degradation threshold, is an important indicator of battery durability.
  • Safety: AGV lithium batteries should be equipped with over-charging, over-discharging, short-circuit and other protection mechanisms to ensure safe use in various working conditions.
  • Environmental adaptability: AGVs may work in harsh environments such as high temperature, low temperature, humidity or vibration, so batteries need to have good environmental adaptability.
  • Charging method: The charging method of AGV lithium battery can be online or offline charging, which depends on the workflow of AGV and the layout of charging facilities.
  • BMS (Battery Management System): The BMS is responsible for monitoring and managing the charging and discharging process of the battery to ensure battery safety, extend battery life and optimize performance.
  • Communication protocol: AGV lithium batteries need to exchange data with the control system of AGV through communication protocols (e.g. RS485, RS232, CAN, etc.) in order to realize real-time monitoring and control of battery status.

Industry Challenges

              Explore how technological advances can help overcome industry challenges.

  • Improvement of energy density: With the development of lithium battery technology, the energy density is constantly improving. This means that under the same volume and weight, Li-ion batteries are able to provide more power, thus extending the running time of AGVs and enhancing their load-carrying capacity to meet the logistics industry’s pursuit of high efficiency.
  • Fast charging technology: Developments in fast charging technology allow AGVs to be recharged in a shorter period of time. This is essential to increase the efficiency of AGVs, especially in logistics and warehousing environments where continuous operation is required.
  • Improved cycle life: Lithium batteries have a long cycle life and can withstand more charge/discharge cycles. This reduces the frequency of battery replacements and lowers maintenance costs while improving the reliability and economy of the AGV.
  • Safety enhancement: Li-ion battery adopts multiple safety protection measures in the design and production process, such as over-charging, over-discharging, over-temperature and other protection functions, to ensure safety in the process of use, which is crucial for the safety of personnel and equipment in the automated logistics system.
  • Lightweight design: Li-ion batteries are lighter than traditional lead-acid batteries, which helps to reduce the overall weight of the AGV, improve handling efficiency and flexibility, and reduce energy consumption at the same time.
  • Intelligent management: With the integration and application of Internet of Things, big data and other technologies, AGV lithium battery will realize more intelligent management. Through real-time monitoring of the state and performance of lithium batteries, accurate prediction and maintenance can be realized to improve the service life and reliability of lithium batteries.
  • Environmental awareness: the development of lithium battery technology is increasingly focusing on environmental performance, the use of environmentally friendly materials and processes to reduce pollution emissions in the production process, to promote the green development of the AGV intelligent vehicle industry.
  • Technological innovation and cooperation: Cooperation between Li-ion battery companies and AGV manufacturers to jointly develop and optimize Li-ion battery solutions to meet specific application requirements. This cooperation helps to quickly adapt to market changes and solve specific technical challenges.
  • Solve the standardization problem: With the standardization of lithium battery technology, it can simplify the design and production process of AGVs, reduce costs, and improve product consistency and reliability.


              AGV lithium batteries store and release energy through the migration of lithium ions, and they come in a variety of types, each of which has its own specific application scenarios and performance advantages. When selecting AGV lithium batteries, it is necessary to comprehensively consider its working principle, type and performance indicators to ensure that the AGV system can operate efficiently and stably.


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